Egypt’s Western Desert is dry, which is not surprising; it is, after all, a desert. But this part of the eastern Sahara (west of the Nile River) is so dry—receiving just centimeters of rainfall per year—that researchers describe it as “hyper-arid.” As such, it seems unlikely that much would grow there.
The circles indicate the irrigation method: water pumped from underground is delivered to sprinklers that rotate around a central pivot point. The “fossil water” used on these fields comes from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer, which recharges slowly and is considered a non-renewable resource. But for now, that water means plants can flourish in the driest of deserts.